Fill in the gaps:
A presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content questions of a
topic to an audience or learner. Presentations come in nearly as many forms as
there are life situations. In the business world, there are sales
presentations, informational and motivational presentations, interviews, status
reports, image-building, and of course, training sessions.
Although individuals most often think of presentations in a business
meeting context, there are countless occasions when that is not the case. For
example, a school district superintendent presents a programme to parents about
the introduction of foreign- language instruction in elementary schools; an
artist paintsdemonstrates decorative painting techniques to a group of interior
designers; a police officer addresses a neighborhood association about
initiating a safety programme. Students are often asked to make oral
presentations. These can be delivered to other students in a seminar or
tutorial. You might have been asked to research a subject and use a
presentation as a means of introducing it to other students for
discussion, or you might be asked to outline a project in which you have been
involved. When looking at presentations in the broadest terms, it is more
important to focus on their purpose. There are three basic purposes of giving
oral presentations: to researchto inform , to persuade, and to build goodwill.
A good presentation starts out with an introductiongreeting and may include an
icebreaker such as a story, an interesting statement or a fact, or an activity
to get the group warmed up. The introduction also needs an objective, that is,
the purpose or goal of the presentation. This not only tells you what you will
talk about, but it also informs the audience of the purpose of the
Next, the body of the presentation comes. Do not write it out word for
word. All you want is an introductionoutline . By jotting down the main points on a set of
index cards, you not only have your outline, but also a memory jogger for the
actual presentation. There are several options for structuring the presentation.
1) Timeline: arrangement in a sequential order.
2) Climax: the main points are delivered in order of
increasing importance.
3) Question/AnswerProblem/Solution : a problem is presented, a solution is
suggested, and benefits are then given.
4) Classification: the important items are the major
5) Simple to complex: ideas are listed from the simplest
to the most complex; it can also be done in a reverse order.
Audiences believe that presenters who use visual aidsmemory cards are more professional
and credible than presenters who merely speak. Visual aids help presenters to
emphasize the key points your audience will understand and remember. The
following visual aids should be followedselected with respect to the needs of your
audience and specific portions of your presentation: tables, bar/line graphs,
diagrams, pie/flow/organizational charts. The presentation vehicles are based
upon the audience’s seating arrangement: overhead projectors, easels, handouts,
slides, models, and computer screens. A presentation program Microsoft
PowerPoint is often used to generate the presentation content.
After the body, comes the closing. This is where you ask for helpquestions ,
provide a wrap-up ( conclusionsummary ), and thank the participants for attending.
And finally, the
important part is practice. The main purpose of creating an outline is to
develop a coherent lengthy plan of what you want to talk about. You should know your
presentation so well that during the actual presentation you should only have
to briefly glance at your notes to ensure you are staying on track. This will
also help you with your nerves by giving you the confidence that you can do it.
Your practice session should include a live session by practicing in front of
co-workers, family, or friends. They can be valuable at providing feedback and
it gives you a chance to practice controlling your nerves. Another great feedback technique benefit is to make a video or audio tape of your presentation and review it
critically with a colleague.

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